I have to credit the smartest girl in my 9th grade, Lanette, for teaching me to become a better lucid dreaming flyer. Yes, Lanette did it – or perhaps, what she represented in the lucid dream did it – that brainy ninth grade sense of blossoming mastery, knowledge and female intuitive guess-work. My dream-Lanette taught me this in a lucid dream:
“I'm in a classroom with about 30 kids. There are windows along one wall, desks, etc. I look at the textbook on my desk and notice that it is for people in the Seventh grade!?. This confuses me and I start to think that I don't belong here.
I turn to my right and see Lanette (the smartest girl in junior high) and I ask her, "What grade is this? What grade is this?". Then something began to happen outside - a storm perhaps. This seems too odd and I shout to everyone something like, "We should all be here!". Suddenly above us a bright light shoots down into the classroom like a spotlight. I fully realize that I am lucid and Lanette and I fly up towards the light.
We fly outside into the neighborhood of tree lined streets next to Central Junior High School. We are manipulating things around us and I wonder about the mechanism of dream manipulations. Interestingly, as if reading my mind, Lanette begins to call out the principles of dream manipulations and flight! At one point she says something like, "Form is the outcome" or "In the form (of your desire or belief) is the outcome". We keep flying... “
(Note: the lucid dream continues on with another adventure of trying to travel through time, but upon awakening, the above remained as the only principle of dream manipulation that I could consciously recall – I assumed the others existed in my subconscious).
By the time of my “Flying with Lanette” lucid dream, I had been lucid dreaming for 15 years – so I had lots of experience. Yet all of that experience brought questions:
Why did it seem so easy to fly in some lucid dreams, and so frustrating in others?
Why could I swoop around like Superman last week, but this week, I can barely claw my way through the dream sky.
Thankfully I had the apparent misfortune of growing up in Kansas, and learning about dreaming (as Castaneda called lucid dreaming) in an environment with little support or guidance from others, and a need to rely upon my own analysis and discovery for the first six years as a lucid dreamer. From that, came a deep desire to understand the principles of lucid dreaming.
Nowadays, one can get on the internet and click from lucid technique to lucid technique (some of which seem possibly helpful, and others, questionable), but one rarely sees an articulation of the underlying principles – the mental architecture of lucid dreaming.
Since lucid dreaming has enormous depth to it, dividing the types of flying for lucid dreamers may be useful as so:
Moving in the Immediately Perceived Space
Moving over Distant Perceived Space
Moving Into Apparent Outer Space
Moving Into Unperceived Space
Moving to Other Levels
Let’s take those ideas and explore them further.
I still recall the early lucid dream of becoming lucidly aware in my childhood front yard by our sycamore trees. Gleefully, I become lucid and I decide to fly. I leap a few feet in the air! Suddenly, hanging in space, I think, “Now what?”
For many beginning lucid dreamers, flying in the immediately perceived space seems a primary goal. Getting from point A to point B should be easy – after all, you seem to be dreaming this, right? While many find it easy, others find movement frustrating. They get stuck, can’t fly, or move with only extreme effort.
First, many beginning lucid dreamers bring physical space expectations into the psychological space of the lucid dream. Let me say that again: many lucid dreamers bring physical space expectations into the psychological space of the lucid dream.
Sadly, new lucid dreamers unthinkingly project the idea of physical effort onto the dream space. While lucid, they walk, they climb, they swim through the air, using physical type effort. They grow frustrated by their physical actions in the lucid state, not realizing that their mis-placed belief in physical action causes the frustration.
The solution, of course, seems simple enough: Realize that when lucid,
1) you exist in a psychological space and
2) you function better using psychological principles.
How would you know if you relate in a physical way to the psychological space of dreams? Well, frankly, you’d see it in your response to the lucid state. If you see yourself relating in the space in a physical way, it suggests at some level, you believe or feel the space to be physical or physical-like. If on the other hand, you see yourself consciously relating in the space in a non-physical way (you fly through walls, you change the couch into a chair, you fly upside down, etc), it suggests, you believe or understand the space as psychological.
Swimming Through Space; Falling Through Space
Many beginning lucid dreamers experience flying in the dream state, as swimming through the space – I certainly did. Like a swimmer breast stroking in the air, I moved my dream arms and dream legs and plodded along, making progress in an effortful way. What did this suggest about my beliefs/expectations? As a lucid “swimmer,” I recognized that I could “fly,” but by swimming, I showed a belief in needing to move in a physical manner! So at that stage, I still showed traces of a belief in needing physical movement in the psychological space of dreams.
Many beginning lucid dreamers will notice too, as they fly, that they gain apparent altitude. They see the houses or trees below them, and can barely believe it, they’re flying! Yet often and inexplicably, the beginning lucid dreamer suddenly begins to fall from space and becomes alarmed! What happened? Did physical gravity enter the psychological space? Or, instead, could the falling have been activated by a (physically oriented) concern about gaining altitude? Did their new “focus” on the ground and objects below trigger a falling response? Probably so.
Invariably, this type of “falling” in a lucid dream can be traced back to “pilot error,” shall we say. Either the lucid dreamer has brought physical ideas/beliefs (like gravity) into the psychological space of the dream, where those ideas/beliefs serve to limit the lucid dreamer. Or the lucid dreamer has begun to focus on the ground and objects below, perhaps with a bit of concern, and the new focus and concern has “weighed” them down.
In a psychological space, a focus on fear and concerns exist as limiting factors. When you focus on fears, you attract the fears. When you focus on your goal, you attract your goal. In a psychological space, focus matters.
Swimming through dream space seems alright, when one has a short distance to move. In some lucid dreams, when I want to move in a room size space, I still swim gently with virtually no effort, through the room. What can I say - it feels great! But what if one wants to go farther? What if one sees an interesting point in the lucid dream, about 200 meters away? Then, the limitations of dream swimming become even more apparent, and one must discover a better approach.
Flying a la Superman
Others may adopt a different viewpoint entirely, and mimic Superman. They know they dream, so they simply put their arms straight out and begin to fly. These lucid dreamers realize that the psychological space of dreaming allows one to perform super-feats, so flying like Superman (or floating, or magic carpeting) becomes possible! Incredibly, with the proper expectation and focus, they swoop and soar with relative ease, like in this lucid dream from April 1983:
“I’m outside along the cove and seeing the water gets me into a flying mood, so I’m now semi-lucid and take off. I decide to just barely skim above the water. It’s exhilarating. I zoom along like the swallows who skim over lakes. Suddenly I shoot straight up and looking down I see three patches on the cove -- the patches, I intuitively know, are “energy centers”.
As long as they adhere to the principles of the psychological space, they succeed in their flying. However, if they focus on fears, e.g., “Oh, I’m getting too high!” things will go awry. If they adopt a limiting belief/expectation, e.g., “One can only go this speed,” the psychological space will adjust to mirror that belief/expectation. Your psychological space seems largely a response to your psyche.
Lucid dreamers learn that they can overcome limiting or negative beliefs/expectations and a focus on fears or concerns. They overcome these things by a sudden switch to focusing their intent and will on the issue, or by overturning a limiting belief/expectation. In most cases, a sudden switch to a new focus or new expectation allows the lucid dreamer to achieve their objective.
However, I met one dream figure who had a different perspective on Superman flying:
Aug. 5-6, 02, “Many Kinds of Flying….”
“(I have become lucid and done a number of things) I tell this one guy who looks like Robin Williams that I want to know all there is about flying in dreams. He says dry-ly, “Not that Superman kind of flying stuff.“ I say, “Yes.”
He shakes his head and explains, “You have got to understand that there are many different kinds of flying.” He pauses. “There’s jungamon, hugamon, and tagamon flying and there’s….” (he continues with four more odd names of flying). He tries to make a point that different types of lucid flying are required for different types of lucid environments. It is best to use the most appropriate one. Superman flying seems to be a very modest level. He goes on with more information about using thoughts - mental mentations and flying. He has a helper who looks like CW….”
Interesting thought: Different lucid environments suggest different types of lucid flying.
Projecting Power – Flying a la Spiderman
We all know Spiderman. He shoots spidery webs onto buildings and objects, and then uses the spidery webs to fly. Unlike Superman, who intends himself to fly and simply expects or wills it, Spiderman projects webs which he uses to fly. Without webs, he does not fly. “Why bring this up?” you may ask.
In some lucid dreaming, we “project” power onto objects in the lucid dream, and then use that projected power to fly. For example, consider this lucid dream:
“Finding myself lucid in a dream, I grab hold of a blue sandal which flies! I hold onto it as this sandal goes zipping around the room – I gleefully hold on, amazed at the speed of the blue sandal.”
Or “Standing on a hillside lucidly aware, I decide to touch the wing of an airplane. Suddenly the airplane wing begins to levitate and so I use it to take me where I want to go. I hang on and it goes to places that I want to visit. I find this very easy.”
While both the sandal and the plane, in some sense, have an association with movement, I still feel surprised by lucid dreams in which I seem to “project power into the other” and fly. Upon waking, I normally remind myself that my belief and expectation made the sandal or plane fly – but I always wonder, “Why do we project power onto others or other things?”
Moving over Distant Perceived Space
Now, imagine a lucid dream, like this one:
“Knowing I dream, I see a mountain top miles away. Suddenly I decide I want to be there, and so I…… Moments later, I find myself lucidly standing on the mountain, looking at the hills, lakes and trees all below me.”
How can one make that move easily and quickly?
Well, a number of ways exist.
Concentrated focus with intent:
To move over a large perceived space, one method could be called “concentrated focus with intent.” As the name suggests, one focuses deeply on the goal and one intends one’s self there. So one drops other concerns, possibilities, worries and ideas, and simply focuses on the goal solely, while “intending” one’s self there.
Do you see that one does not concern one’s self with “how” one gets there – do I fly like Superman, or do I float on a magic carpet – at what speed, or what form? In this type of movement, the focus becomes concentrated solely on the goal. All other issues fall away. Concentrating on the goal as one’s sole focus, and then intending one’s self there, psychologically speaking, does it.
How does one “intend” one’s self to that mountaintop? In general terms, one has focused exclusively on the mountaintop, and then one places one’s perception there. For some, it may seem that they “imagine” themselves there or imagine themselves touching the highest rock there, but in any case, one’s focus follows one’s intent and one finds one’s self there – on the mountaintop.
In this lucid dream excerpt from 2002, I fly with a friend:
“I sense that the setting is just “Too dreamy”. Then I become convinced (and lucidly aware).
I tell my friend, “Let’s fly! I’ll show you how,” and I grab her arm and we fly about 50 feet. We do this a few more times – going about 50 feet. She keeps getting better each time. I finally tell her that to fly easily when lucid, you have to “See yourself where you want to be.” I point to a car far away and say, “See yourself there and then fly, it’s easier.” I joke with her and we laugh about it. We easily fly there. We go pass a gate and into a beautiful garden -- it is like a mini-paradise.”
In another example, I see where I want to be and feel myself “drawn” towards it:
May 3-4, 2006, – “Watch Your Focus”
“I seem to be on a neighborhood street on a sunny day. Lots of snow covers the ground. I notice one place where water drains down, creating a large hole in the snow, surrounded by fluffy, un-real looking snow. Suddenly this seems too “dream-like” and I say, “This is a dream!”
I take off and fly upwards. Gaining altitude easily, I see a school building about a half mile away across a large field. I put my arms out a’la Superman, and tell myself to concentrate on one corner of the building, and draw it to me – as I concentrate, I accelerate towards the building effortlessly – and arrive there in seconds….”
Willing: To move over a large perceived space, another method could be called “willing.” We all have an experience of using physical strength to accomplish things, and one can liken the will to “psychological strength.” To open a can of Coke seems simple, one puts their finger under the tab and pulls up. But then, see yourself opening a stubborn glass jar. You realize it does not want to open, and so you reach down deep and apply pressure, strength, force and emotion to get it open!!
In a lucid dream, willing can be like that. One deeply wants some outcome in a lucid dream, and so one uses an inner pressure, strength, force and emotion to make it happen. The depth of the willing often seems equal to the emotions behind it. So some “willing” in a lucid dream seems fairly modest, but on other occasions, a frustrated lucid dreamer can psychologically burst with “will” to accomplish a desired goal. The lucid “willing” sweeps away all obstacles like a tsunami of desire.
Intent and Will seem similar, since they both accomplish actions, but subtle differences exist. One’s Will seems to exist as a power or force. One’s Intent seems to exist as a concentrated focus.
This lucid dream on Oct 7-8, 04, found me pulling in the “energy” of the lucid dream. I felt I had finally opened up to the enormity of lucid dreaming's source. Then willing myself to fly, “I feel more and more energetic, and begin to fly. As I do so, I know that I can fly at any speed, and blast forward into the darkness. Suddenly I seem to have entered a kind of gray space filled with small capsule-size bits of brilliant light (they seem to be about 90% brilliant white light with an end that glows orange-rust colored) that scatter around me. It seems beautiful like an abstract painting."
In other lucid dreams, I have seen the use of the will in flight make all the colors stream together, as if one moves so fast, the imagery blurs.
With more lucid dream experiences, moving over distances easily seems natural and normal. One begins to establish a new mental construct of belief/expectation in which lucid dream movement seems appropriate to the situation. One feels secure in the psychological space of lucid dreams; you feel it and it shows.
An excerpt from a Sept 23, 1997 lucid dream:
“I fly around doing funny things, talking to people, etc. I have no anxiety about this lucid dream coming to an end – it’s great. Finally, I decide to fly up into the night’s sky above the trees. It’s like I’m pneumatically pulled upwards, effortlessly. I look down and see houses, streets and trees, get smaller and smaller. I get euphoric and think, “What a beautiful world!” It all seems so safe and pure – like God had created it. The higher I go, I see a light…”
Moving Into Apparent Outer Space
As one gets more accomplished as a lucid dreamer, there may come a time, when you wish to travel into apparent outer space, or in the words of Star Trek’s Captain Kirk, “to boldly go where no man has gone before.”
In my first experience with apparent “outer space,” I simply found myself there:
May 15th 85
“I’m with some friends. It’s nicely dark. We’re kind of in a tree-house, but it’s no where -- it’s not connected to anything. I become lucid and decide to go flying -- it’s an unbelievable trip -- I realize that I’m flying through outer space, and I realize that I’m flying through time - somehow space equals time and somehow this space puckers - it’s thicker in spots than others. Then at one point this couple is flying past me with all this bright purple-red glowing twine. I take a string and use it to counteract the loss of gravity - I use it to help me move. (Ahead I see ethereally intense colored light emanating from various strings or root like structures in space) I hold on to my glowing twine and just go flying and falling and never worry. There’s nothing to run into -- it was amazing!”
Often in lucid dreams, one finds a night sky above them with a moon, stars and all. Suddenly you decide, “Hey, I want to travel in outer space!” -- and off you go! Well, it may go any number of ways from that point on, both expected and unexpected:
“I become lucid in a home-like setting with lots of people from a family around, kind of like a picnic. Somehow I become lucid, and find my flying control was excellent. I was flying from room to room – moving things. I remember one woman was seductive, but I ignored that.
I believe I thought I should fly out into the stars. This time, I flew and flew, deeper and deeper into outer space. I couldn’t believe how far I was going – I went pass planets. I stopped to look at one planet with rings. Even some of its moons had rings – kind of orange-ish gold. I kept going and going.
Finally I decided to go back and fly through the rings. I headed towards it.” I recall feeling tingles of energy as I did so, and having an amazing sensory experience.
However, on another occasion, something truly unexpected happened:
Saturday 10/10/ 96 10,000 Stars
“I become lucid and I’m flying around my bed. I remember Carlos Castaneda’s dreaming position theory, so I align myself with my sleeping body (about 4’ above it), close my eyes and say, “I want to waken in the next dreaming world.” I wonder about levels of dreaming.
Suddenly I feel energy and I fly straight up out of a house (like my childhood home). The night sky is brilliant with 10,000 stars, it appears. I notice how real everything seems, as I fly around. I fly down to some fruit trees and touch their waxy leaves. I see a cat walk by.
I think how great life is and I marvel at the stars above. I recall others have flown to the stars, and decide, “That’s what I’ll do.” As I fly upwards in a standing position, the stars glow bright, then they suddenly start to rush together into patterns and symbols (a trinity of three circles, pyramid shapes, interlocking geometric figures, a star of David – all outlined in glowing golden lit stars) and then the symbols fly away! This keeps happening – more groups, join, make a new symbol, and then fly away – until finally, almost all the stars are gone.” I watched this with true amazement, and wondered if the stars and constellations exist as true expressions of pure symbolic meaning.
I recall once hearing a fellow lucid dreamer comment that whenever he had lucid dreams of outer space, he couldn’t help but wonder if he had really moved deeper and deeper into inner space. The experiences often felt profound and mind expanding, but had the journey been an inner one? His insight struck me, since I had similar thoughts upon waking – were these journeys into deep inner space?
Moving into and through apparent outer space can be an amazing adventure for lucid dreamers. Some night, when the conditions feel right, try it.
Moving Into Unperceived Space
Okay, let’s say that one wants to move a great distance in the lucid dream. For example, one finds oneself lucidly aware in their apartment in New York City and then decides to try and visit a friend in Los Angeles . How does one negotiate that 2,456 mile trip?
Well, let’s make a flight plan. Can we breast-stroke our way to LA? No, we’re not that strong, and it would take too long. Can we fly like Superman? Well, we could try, but if we fly at 500 mph, it will still take us 5 hours to get there! Couldn’t we just fly faster? Even at 2,500 mph, it would still take us an hour – and have you ever had a lucid dream last as long as an hour?
Quickly, we can see these standard lucid dream flying techniques used in the immediately perceived space have limited value in these cases. We need to traverse long distances in a short time. How do you do it?
Again, we rely upon principles of lucid dreaming. Recognizing that in the lucid dream, we exist in a psychological space where physical distance has little inherent meaning (unless of course, we believe that the physical distance matters!), we develop techniques to move quickly through psychological space, using our psychological tools, like focus, intent, the will, and expectation/belief, as seen in this example:
Oct. 15-16, 03 “Rock Wall - To the Artic”
“ I seem to be on a trail. As I move along, I realize that the trail seems to conclude at the foot of a massive reddish rock wall - it’s huge. Staring at the rock wall for a moment, I simply realize that “this is a dream!”
With that, I force myself to fly upwards, and keep flying as I think about what I want to do. Suddenly, I get the idea that I can fly anywhere easily, and so I decide (focused intent) to fly “to the Artic”. Just as suddenly, I begin to accelerate through the sky and then it is as if a “sky cave” forms (like a wormhole) , and I fly right through it and suddenly land face down in the Artic snow.
Jeez - that was a bit of a shock and not a very smooth landing – almost instantly I found myself face down in the snow. The snow was extremely powdery, so I kept pushing it aside, looking for rock, but only found crystal clear ice. I began to wonder what had prompted me to come to the Artic at all.” I awoke into physical reality
Of course, after years of lucid dreaming I had become use to the “wormhole effect” and didn’t think much of it. But in early lucid dreams, I felt shocked to move through this wormhole effect. I recall seeing the movie, “Contact” (Jodie Foster’s character uses a futuristic machine to apparently move through time) as she went through a wormhole of light, vibration and sound – and it shocked me how similar my experiences (from decades earlier) mirrored this Hollywood version.
Obviously focused intent may be utilized in other fashions to move through unperceived space.
The D’Urso “Behind Me” technique: Beverly D’Urso, one of LaBerge’s premier research subjects, told me of this technique. She began to wonder why go to the bother of flying and flying to try and get somewhere, when she could simply intend that the place be “right behind me” when she turned to find it?
From her website: http://beverly.durso.org/sur_final/sur_final.html (used with permission):
“As I matured in my lucid dreaming skills, I could eliminate flying altogether by merely imagining where I wanted to go and have the place appear right behind me.”
Obviously, Beverly understood that dealing with lucid dreaming “space” involved a whole new set of rules and realizations, and in lucid dreams, we could demonstrate those principles.
Variant Techniques: Stepping Through This Wall or Jumping Into This Mirror or Opening This Door – In this technique, one focuses on the place to visit and firmly intends it to be on the other side of the wall or the mirror or through the next door. Then one walks through the wall or jumps into the mirror or opens the door, firmly expecting to experience the place on the other side. Sometimes it helps to verbally announce your intent, for example, “When I open this door, I will be in Central Park !”
Spinning a New Dream Scene – LaBerge popularized this technique in his book, “Lucid Dreaming.” He developed the technique for the purpose of “preventing awakening and producing new lucid dream scenes at will,” (pg 119), which helps when one feels the lucid dream may come to an end. LaBerge suggests that as one spins, one reminds one’s self repeatedly that “I’m dreaming” and wait for a new dream scene to appear.
Once I read his first book and understood the technique, its timing (at the end of a lucid dream) and the expected result, then I had success with using it. On most occasions, a new dream scene re-appeared and I continued the lucid dream.
However, in the early days, before his book came out, a friend asked me about “spinning” in lucid dreams. I had never heard of this, and my friend’s comments did not explain the purpose in any detail (as LaBerge did in 1985 in his first book). So, having no expectations of the result, what happened when I started spinning in a lucid dream?
“ I became lucid and Started spinning myself. (I see) Light green image. Then (I seemed) inside a pastel ball of light in which I was flying along the floor in a circle around an axis. I thought, “I should look for symbols.” Then I see four colored dots. Then four more. I keep flying faster. I decide to wind it down.”
You can see that my use of this without “expectations” and in the midst of a lucid dream, led to dramatically different results – I felt almost like an electron in some lucid atom. This suggest that many lucid dreaming techniques provide value only as an “expectational structure” on which to project our mental energy towards a desired result. In and of themselves, the “techniques” may have no inherent connection to the result.
LaBerge also noted that “These results suggest that spinning could be used to produce transitions to any dream scene the lucid dreamer expects.” (pg 121). For this reason, some of us lucid dreamers use it as a means to travel in psychological space to new apparent physical locales.
Announcing One’s Intent:
Like many lucid dreamers, I wondered about trying to visit someone far away. How to do it? Well, it seemed that whenever I firmly “announced my intent” to the lucid dream, I succeeded. Sometimes in these lucid dreams, I experiences moving through a “wormhole” or “fog” or darkness.
Having never visited a lucid dreamer (whom I knew lived in San Jose , CA., 1500 miles away), I decided to try and visit her.
8/23/94 I walk a big dog along a twisty, curvy road in the late afternoon. I see large trees, and houses set back from the road…..Somehow, this looks like Moundsville , West Virginia near the Ohio River . I stop at a house and they let me in. A guy introduces himself and gives me his card. I go into the kitchen where something strikes me as funny or odd. Suddenly I say, "This is nothing but a dream!" I feel a huge surge of energy. OH!
I begin to think that I should contact LM, and I wonder if she is having a similar dream or some variant of the lucid/precognitive goal. I fly up through the house and into the dark evening sky. As I fly, I say, “LM, California ” a few times. The feeling is like quickly moving through a milk chocolate fog. Finally I am in a dark bedroom of her house, I think. But I feel she is across the hall. In the darkness I can make out a closet to my left. I head for the door, calling her name. I come to a chair back, and hold it. It makes me feel blocked as I stand 4 feet from the door. My frustration begins and I can tell the dream is going to end."
I sent her my drawing of the room, which she confirmed looked very much like the bedroom across the hallway and confirmed other details. Incidents that possess the ability to confirm or verify, make one wonder about the nature of some lucid dream travels.
In most cases of manipulating unperceived space, one simply uses their will or intent with a clear focus. At this level of lucid dreaming, one acts with high levels of clarity and certainty.
Moving to Other Levels
To this point we have dealt with common issues that beginning and intermediate lucid dreamers encounter – moving around the perceived environment, moving through outer space environments and manipulating unperceived space, etc. Potentially, a lucid dreamer could move to other levels of experience. But, this involves deeper issues of leaving belief and expectation behind, and handing will and intent over to the dreaming – yet, for some lucid dreamers, this represents a completely new dimension to consider – and for me, perhaps another article
So by this point, you can see a rough outline of some of the secrets of lucid dream movement:
When in a physical space, use physical means to move and fly.
When in a psychological space (like a lucid dream), use psychological principles to move and fly.
If you insist on physical movements in a psychological space, you will eventually grow frustrated and limit yourself.
If you utilize psychological principles to move in a psychological space, you will coincide with the nature of that space, and feel in greater harmony with it.
The psychological principles come forth as new realizations and experiences regarding the proper use of belief, expectation, focus, will and intent in the lucid state.
Lucid dreaming has unknown depth with new revelations awaiting us – we have barely begun to comprehend its immensity and insights. Someday, new realizations will expand our beliefs and expectations to greater dimensions, and we will venture deeper into the psychological space of lucid dreaming.
Or in the words of a youthful sardonic dream figure, whom I ask to point me in the direction back to my lucid dream hotel:“Mister, any way is the right way.”
(First published in the Lucid Dream Exchange, June 2007 by Robert Waggoner © All rights reserved.
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